BIO L Mammalian Anatomy and Physiology II Laboratory (0 credits). Hours: 0 classroom + 3 lab/studio. Co-requisite(s): BIO Taught: Spring only. For each mammal, basic anatomy and physiology including musculoskeletal system, respiratory anatomy, digestive system, urinary anatomy. A study of mammalian anatomy and physiology with emphasis on how these two interrelated concepts contribute to homeostasis. Topics covered in part I include cells, tissues, and the skeletal, muscular, nervous and endocrine systems.


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Skeleton of a diamondback rattlesnake Reptiles are a class of animals comprising turtlestuataraslizardssnakes and crocodiles.

They are tetrapodsbut the snakes and a few species of lizard either have no limbs or their limbs are much reduced in size.

Their bones are better ossified and their skeletons mammalian anatomy and physiology than those of amphibians.

The teeth are conical and mostly uniform in size. The surface cells of the epidermis are modified into horny scales which create a waterproof layer.

Reptiles are unable to use their skin for respiration as do amphibians and have a more efficient respiratory system drawing air into their lungs by expanding their chest walls. Mammalian anatomy and physiology heart resembles that of the amphibian but there is mammalian anatomy and physiology septum which more completely separates the oxygenated and deoxygenated bloodstreams.

The reproductive system has evolved for internal fertilization, with a copulatory organ present in most species. The eggs are surrounded by amniotic membranes which prevents them from drying out and are laid on land, or develop internally in some species.

The bladder is small as nitrogenous waste is excreted as uric acid. They have an inflexible trunk encased in a horny carapace above and a plastron below.

Anatomy - Wikipedia

These are mammalian anatomy and physiology from bony plates embedded in the dermis which are overlain by horny ones and are partially fused with the ribs and spine.

The neck is long and flexible and the head and the legs can be drawn back inside the shell.


Turtles are vegetarians and the typical reptile teeth have been replaced by sharp, horny plates. In aquatic species, the front legs are modified into flippers. There is one living species, Sphenodon punctatus. The skull has two openings fenestrae on either side mammalian anatomy and physiology the jaw is rigidly attached to the skull.

There is one row of teeth in the lower jaw and this fits between the two rows in the upper jaw when the animal chews. The teeth are merely projections of bony material from the jaw and eventually wear down.

The brain and heart are mammalian anatomy and physiology primitive than those of other reptiles, and the lungs have a single chamber and lack bronchi.

Mammalian Anatomy and Physiology I, II

The tuatara has a well-developed parietal eye on its forehead. This results in the jaws being less rigidly attached which allows the mouth to open wider. Lizards are mostly quadrupeds, with the trunk held off the ground by short, sideways-facing legs, but a few species have no limbs and resemble snakes.

Lizards have moveable eyelids, eardrums are present and some species have a central parietal eye. The skeleton consists of mammalian anatomy and physiology skull, a hyoid mammalian anatomy and physiology, spine and ribs though a few species retain a vestige of the pelvis and rear limbs in the form of pelvic spurs.

The bar under the second fenestra has also been lost and the jaws have extreme flexibility allowing the snake to swallow its prey whole.

Mammalian Anatomy and Physiology I, II | Notre Dame College

Snakes lack moveable eyelids, the eyes being covered by transparent "spectacle" scales. They do not have eardrums but can detect ground vibrations through the bones of their skull.

Their forked tongues are used as organs of taste and smell and some mammalian anatomy and physiology have sensory pits on their heads enabling them to locate warm-blooded prey. The head and trunk are dorso-ventrally flattened and the tail is laterally compressed.

It undulates from side to side to force the animal through the water when swimming. The tough keratinized scales provide body armour and some are fused to the skull. The nostrils, eyes and ears are elevated above the top of the flat head enabling them to remain above mammalian anatomy and physiology surface of the water when the animal is floating.