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Index of /books
This index also provided rules for censorship. For almost two centuries, the Index was updated periodically without major revisions, but beginning in the Index listed forbidden books not according to categories but simply alphabetically.
- Index of /Books
- Index of /Books/Computer Programming/Hacking and Hackers Black Book
- Index of /books/01 - Computer Science/
- Index of /books/UNIX
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- Index of /Books/Images
In and there were major revisions in the general norms governing censorship and prohibition. The last edition of the Index was that of ; it was abolished in The Catholic Church has, however, not relinquished authority to forbid the reading of books that in its judgment are a danger to the faith index of books morals of Catholics.
Index of /Books/Images
Index of books, books listed on the Index are not automatically permitted reading for Catholics. For many permission from Church authorities is still required. In the cases of the Copernican Systemthe Church was slow to act because it did not see immediate danger to the faithful in De Revolutionibus SedisXLI, This Bull of Benedict XIVpublished on 8 July,regulated in detail the procedure of the Roman Congregations in the examination of pernicious books.
It strictly commanded that the examination of a book be entrusted only to revisors well versed in the particular language and branch of learning. They were to index of books free from all partisanship and prejudice, and had to pass judgment not according to their private predilections or the tenets of any school but simply and solely according to the general Catholic teaching and the dogmas of Holy Church.
The Galileo Project | Christianity | Congregation of the Index
Especially when examining books of Catholic authors index of books merit, they were to allow them free circulation, if at all possible, in a spirit of fairness and leniency. In no case was the book of a Catholic author to be condemned on the strength of the verdict of one revisor, not even when all the consultors agreed with him.
Together with the report of index of books first revisor — who remained anonymous — the book was given to another for a second revision, and only when the second revisor's verdict was in agreement with that of the first were both reports referred to the cardinals for final decision.
index of books If, however, the second revisor thought that the book ought not to be prohibited, a third would examine both verdicts as well as the book itself, but without knowing the names of the other revisors.
If the opinion of the third coincided with that of the index of books and with the general vote of the consultors, the case could be passed on to the cardinals.
Otherwise the consultors were again to give their votes, whereupon the matter would be put before the cardinals for final decision. In the case of writings which, according to the decision of the congregation, could be published in a index of books edition, the congregation was to try, if possible, to hear the author's own defence or else appoint a consultor ex officio for the defence.
Index of /books/UNIX
In the cases of the Copernican Systemthe Church was slow to act because index of books did not see immediate danger to the faithful in De Revolutionibus For one thing, it was written by a member index of books the Church.
For another, the book contained a preface discovered by Kepler not to have been written by Copernicus that stated that the geocentric system proposed in the book was only a mathematical hypothesis and made no claims about how the universe was really constituted.
But with Galileo's writings, which reached out to a wide audience and brought the argument about Copernicus into the mainstream of educated discourse, the Church acted. Inafter 73 years, it placed De Revolutionibus on the Index subject to revision, index of books with several other books that defended the Copernican System.
It is interesting to note that the revisions required in Copernicus's index of books were, in terms of the total work, actually very minor. Copies of De Revolutionibus that were in Italy at this time show the revisions: