Welding Defects. A weld discontinuity is defined by the American Welding Society as “an interruption of the typical structure of a material, such as a lack of. Welding defect. Cracks. Arc strike crackings. Cold cracking. Crater crack. Hat crack. Hot cracking. Underbead crack. Longitudinal crack. Reheat cracking. Distortion. Gas inclusion. Inclusions. Lack of fusion and incomplete penetration. Lamellar ‎Major causes · ‎Types · ‎Cracks · ‎Distortion. Defects are common in any type of manufacturing, welding including. In the process, there can be deviations in the shape and size of the metal structure.


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Defects in welding is one of the most dangerous and unacceptable defects because it is highly transmissible. From a small crack, if it does not detected and get rid of in time, the entire part of the involved welds can be cracked for a short time, which leads to all structural damage.

Internal defects include slag inclusion, lack of fusion, necklace cracking and incomplete filled groove. Slag defects in welding formed by reaction with the fluxes and is generally lighter.

It has low density. So defects in welding will float on the top of the weld pool. And would chipped off after solidification. The metal gets hot too quickly or cools down too quickly. This type of crack happens well after a weld is completed and the metal has cooled off.

Handbook - Weld Defects

It can even happen days or weeks after a weld. You can guard against cold cracking by increasing the thickness of your first welding pass when starting a defects in welding weld. The really annoying part about crater cracks is that they can cause other cracks, and the cracking can just kind of snowball from there.

Any existing defects or notches aggravate crack formation.

Types of welding defects and remedies

Things that help prevent reheat cracking include heat treating first with a low temperature soak and then with a rapid heating to high temperatures, grinding or peening the weld toes, and using a two layer welding technique to refine the HAZ grain structure.

Major reason for defects in welding of these types of defects in welding is hydrogen embrittlement. These types of defects can be eliminated using high current at the starting and proper filler material.

Toe crack occurs due to moisture content present in the welded area,it as a part of the surface crack so can be easily detected.

Preheating and proper joint formation is must for eliminating defects in welding types of defects. Jigs, fixturing, cross supports, bracing, and weld bead placement and sequence will help to hold distortion to a minimum.

Where possible, balanced welding about the neutral axis will assist in keeping distortion to a minimum. Proper fixturing and defects in welding of the assembly makes the welding operation easier and minimizes buckling and warping of thin sections.

It is suggested that, where possible, extra stock be allowed to the overall width and length.

Excess material can then be removed in order to achieve final dimensions. Reducing the deposition rate. Increasing the joint angle.


Try to position the electrode and torch defects in welding properly so that the edges of the plate melt away. Positioning the bead properly so that the sharp edges with other beads can be avoided.

Defects in Welding Joints: Internal and External

Necklace Cracking It occurs in the defects in welding of electron beam welding where the weld does not penetrate properly. Causes of Necklace Cracking: It occurs in materials such as nickel base alloys, stainless steel, defects in welding steels and Tin alloys. Using high speed of electron beam welding Remedies for Necklace Cracking: Using a proper welding technique reduce the chances of necklace cracking.

Using proper materials for welding.